India confident of getting into NSG, says External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj | India is working with China to win support | India will not oppose any country's membership proposal, EAM told a news conference | India gets first women fighter pilots | A history was created when the three women fighter pilots conferred with the President’s Commission | The pilots are Flying Officer Avani Chaturvedi, Flying Officer Bhawana Kanth and Flying Officer Mohana Singh | The commissioning ceremony, witnessed by Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar, held at Air Force Academy, Dundigal | India joined the select few nations in the world that have women fighter pilots in their Air Forces | Boeing, Tata Establish Aerospace Facility in Hyderabad | Defence Minister Parrikar initiated the ground-breaking ceremony to establish the facility | India's indigenous Basic Trainer Aircraft HTT-40 takes to the skies on inaugural flight June 17 | Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar witnessed the flight in Bangalore | The HTT-40 was built by Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd | HTT-40 all set to be the IAF's trainer aircraft | Civil Aviation Ministry Unveils New Civil Avaition Policy | IAF MiG-27 Crashes near Jodhpur | The aircraft was airborne from Jodhpur Air Base and was on a routine training-flying sortie | The two pilots, onboard the fighter jet, ejected to safety | A Court of Inquiry ordered to investigate the accident | After Switzerland, Mexico supports India's entry into NSG | Modi thanks Mexican President Enrique Pena Nieto after bilateral talks | Modi receives unprecedented applause in US Congress | Recalling Abraham Lincoln, Modi describes Capitol Hill as a Temple of Democracy | India will never forget the solidarity shown by the US against 26/11 terror attacks in Mumbai in 2008 | Modi supports cooperation in maintaining Freedom of Navigation in the Seas | India, US Civil Nuclear Deal changed bilateral ties | Modi describes terrorism as a big global threat and calls for isolation of those who harbour terrorism | India joins MTCR | Italy, which had blocked india's entry into the missile control regime, let it happen this time | President Obama had promised US help to India, and he has fulfilled it just as Prime Minister Modi is visiting Washington | India had applied for membership on June 1, and as there was no objection, its entry was automatic | Modi lays wreath at Space Shuttle Columbia memorial | India-born Kalpana Chawla was among the seven astronauts who perished in the tragedy in 2003 | Modi also meets Sunita Williams, another India-born astronaut | Hillary Clinton winning Democratic nomination for US presidency | Formal announcement in July | Switzerland categorically supports India for NSG membership | Mexico also expected to express support as US anchors India's entry into MTCR and NSG | Indian PM Modi lands in Washington June 6 for a bilateral summit | Entry into MTCR likely to be announced June 7 or 8 | Italy agrees to India's entry in the Missile Technology Control Regime after return of both its marines held in India | Prime Minister Narendra Modi Embarks on 5-day 5-nation Tour June 4 | The Prime Minister is to Visit Afghanistan, Qatar, Switzerland, US and Mexico from June 4-8 | PM Modi inaugurated Afghanistan-India Friendship Dam in Herat, Afghanistan | Mr Modi Conferred with the Highest Civilian Honour of Afghanistan 'Amir Amanullah Khan Award' | President Ashraf Ghani bestowed the award to PM Modi after inauguration of the Afghanistan-India Friendship Dam | India Signs Hague Code against Missile Proliferation | India, US Sign Arrangement for the Exchange of Terrorist Screening Information June 2 | The Arrangement Signed by US Ambassador Richard Verma and Indian Home Secretary Rajiv Mehrishi |
 

China ranks third in world military expenses

 
By Ilya Kramnik, RIA Novosti analyst Published : July 2008
 
 
 

Moscow. Last year, the three nations with the world’s biggest military expenses were the United States ($547 billion), the United Kingdom ($59.7 billion) and China ($58.3 billion).

The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) published these figures in its 2008 annual report. There are other estimates, but they are not radically different.

Many research organizations and the media tend to base their comparison of various countries’ military might on their defense budgets, although their estimates are often disputed, sometimes by the objects of their studies.

Although such comparisons are very relative, they are a point of departure for analyzing the military potentialities of different countries. Reports of international institutions which study the strategy and national military potentials, such as the London-based Institute of Strategic Studies (IISS) and SIPRI, are considered the most accurate.

Only recently, China’s defense budget was a little over $20 billion. What stands behind its leap in military expenses? What war machine will it have in the future? Many countries, above all China’s nextdoor neighbours, are interested in answers to these questions.

The growing economy is the main catalyst of China’s boosting military potentialities. Its industrialized export oriented economy (China is increasingly becoming the world’s producer of absolutely everything - from man-made flowers to cars) requires adequate military protection. And China has is ambitious in raising its military and strategic profile.

Despite successes in the last few decades however, China’s armed forces are still rather backward, which another incentive for increasing military spending.

Its ground forces are relatively numerous but it does not have enough modern military hardware; its army air defense system is weak, and its artillery is insufficiently mobile.

The same is true of China’s air force. Most of its combat aircraft are copies of Soviet war planes of the 1950s. The number of modern aircraft is negligible.

Moreover, China’s industry is not developed enough to produce modern aircraft independently. It cannot manufacture a number of important aggregates at the level of the leading aircraft-building powers.

Thus, its engines for combat aircraft are still below their Western and Russian counterparts in economic fuel consumption and overhaul period. In order to close the gap, China will have to make considerable investments, primarily to modernize its industry. China’s airlift force is also weak. It does not have enough medium and heavy military transport aircraft.

The development of the navy in China is impeded not only by its rather backward industry but also by the fleet’s second-rate role in its military potential.

As distinct from the majority of industrially advanced countries, China’s fleet is not an independent branch but part of its People’s Liberation Army (PLA). This subordinate position, that is, orientation to army tasks, limits the Chinese fleet to coastal missions.

The Chinese Navy primarily operates in territorial waters and a 200 mile-long economic zone. For actions in the open sea, China has a very limited number of multi-purpose nuclear-powered submarines and shore-based Xian H-6 (Tu-16 licensed copy) missile-carrier aircraft.

But this situation is changing, and the PLA’s navy is expected to receive its first aircraft-carriers in the coming decade.

Escorted by an adequate number of frigates or destroyers, they will be able to operate in far-away waters. As other nuclear powers, China’s strategy is largely based on the nuclear deterrent.

At present, it is equipping its nuclear forces with new DF-31A missiles, which can destroy targets at a distance of 11,000 km. It is also introducing into its fleet nuclear-powered missile carriers of the 094 type, which are harder to detect than their predecessors (092-type submarines) and equipped with JL-2 missiles capable of hitting targets on other continents.

Experts believe that all in all, China now has 300-400 nuclear charges. This amount is much below the Russian or US potentials but the situation is gradually changing.

On the whole, China’s armed forces are capable of carrying out any regional missions, but in strategic potentialities (that is, in nuclear deterrent, and ability to transfer troops over considerable distances) they are lagging behind even their Russian counterpart, which is not at its prime at the moment, to say nothing of the United States.

This situation is most likely to remain the same in the next 10 to 15 years. After all, China is not going to have tough military confrontation with anyone.

(RIA Novosti)

 
  © India Strategic  
     
   
 
Top Stories
India Gets First Women Fighter Pilots
Fifteen Nursing Students Commissioned into MNS
India’s Indigenous Trainer Aircraft HTT-40 Takes off
Naval Institute of Aeronautical Technology Celebrates Diamond Jubilee
Assam Regiment Marks Platinum Jubilee
Army Chief General Dalbir Singh Reviews Passing Out Parade at OTA, Gaya
Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant Director RS Sundar Awarded the Russian Order of Friendship
Indian Coast Guard, Korea Coast Guard Participate in Anti-piracy Exercise
India Joins MTCR
What is MTCR?
Malabar-2016 to increase interoperability among IN, USN and JMSDF
Maharashtra Naval Unit NCC Cadets Get Sailing Experience Onboard INS Trikand
VEcare: Army Helpline for Veterans
India becomes Co-chair of Working Group on Maritime Situational Awareness
World’s Space Agencies Unite to Face the Climate Challenge
Exercise Desert Eagle-II Concludes
India, US Sign Arrangement for Exchange of Terrorist Screening Information
Two-day DRDO Directors Conclave Ends
Seminar on International Day of UN Peacekeepers
Indian Warships on Visit to Subic Bay, Philippines
 
   
 Home | Contact Us| In the Press| Links| Downloads
© 2008-14, India Strategic. All rights reserved.